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Indicator data sheet




Short description:
Proportion of land covered by buildings plus sealed and
semi-sealed transport and open space

Importance and interpretation:
The indicator describes the degree of imperviousness in a reference area. The higher the value, the higher the proportion sealed soil in an administrative territory (100 % is complete soil-sealing, 0 % is a completely unsealed area).

Data basis:
High Resolution Layer Imperviousness Degree, © European Commission,
Copernicus Land Monitoring Services, EEA

The raster-based value for level of soil sealing (ranging from 0 - 100 %) is calculated as an average value, related to the reference area (administrative areas VG25).


The allocation of the data pixels to reference areas (e.g. municipalities) is done aaccording to the spatial location of the pixel centre. If the cloud cover of the ATKIS settlement site (relevant area of impervious surfaces) of a reference unit is >10 %, a 'No Data' flag is set.

Important parameters:
-geometrical resolution: 100 x 100 m
-average classification rating: 85 %
-accuracy for the whole of Germany: 94 %

Note: The multi-temporal comparison of imperviousness degree values derived from satellite image data is subject to uncertainties due to changing atmospheric influences and different sensor calibrations over time. Since common classification approaches are essentially based on the detection of areas covered with vegetation, some areas that are not covered with vegetation may be classified as sealed in some cases. An increase in vegetation on such areas can therefore indicate an impoerviousness decrease that actually did not happen.

The input data for the calculation of this indicator come from the High Resolution Layer Imperviousness Degree of the European Copernicus programme (every three years). Occasionally these data are updated, which may lead to changed values for older time periods. In the IOER Monitor, the latest versions of the Imperviousness Degree Layer are used, which can lead to subsequent value changes of the imperviousness degrees of the reference areas.

Available levels:
X Whole Germany X Cities (> 50 000 inh.) X Grid 10 km
X States Quarters X Grid 5 km
X Districts X Grid 1 km
X Municipal level X Grid 500 m
X Grid 200 m
X Spatial planning regions X Grid 100 m

Copernicus Land Monitoring Services